Scores were computed by summing ratings for all respective items for the cognitive reappraisal (α = 0.88) and expressive suppression (α = 0.75) subscales, with higher scores indicating greater use of that particular emotion regulation strategy. Cognitive Flexibility Inventory: Factor structure, invariance, reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity among Italian university students. doi: 10.1080/00221309.2017.1421137, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., and Alloy, L. B. 3. Nevertheless, this result suggests that three substantive factors do not underlie the CCFQ. As a final objective, the present study determined whether the CCFQ was able to capture aspects of cognitive control/flexibility that might be relevant to depressive disorders that are not measured by other questionnaires related to this construct. (2003). As indicated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients in Table 1, the cognitive control over emotion and appraisal and coping flexibility dimensions of the CCFQ exhibited excellent internal reliability, and the correlation between the two factors was r = 0.49, suggesting a moderate degree of overlap. (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.010, Ochsner, K. N., Silvers, J. Thus, the lack of test-retest reliability of the CCFQ is an important limitation of the present study. Effective problem-solving and decision-making were also proposed to highly depend on cognitive flexibility (Cañas et al., 2003; Isen, 2008; Hare et al., 2009). Exploring the nature of cognitive flexibility. The Coping Flexibility Questionnaire (COFLEX; Vriezekolk et al., 2012) is a 13-item questionnaire that assesses the capability of switching between assimilative and accommodative coping strategies (versatility) and the capability of generating and considering coping options, and appraising the suitability of a coping strategy in a given situation (reflective coping). RG, KM, and HA contributed to the conception and study design, and all authors contributed to the interpretation, drafting, revising, and final approval of the present manuscript. T1 = 20 min; T2 = 10 min; T3 = 15 min. If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Lazarus, R. S. (1999). (2015). (2013). 3, 212–216. Stressful events are rarely static or isolated events, and individuals can only attend to a limited amount of information at any given time (Baddeley, 2003). Neurosci. Once consent had been granted, participants completed the shortened (18-item) CCFQ in addition to several related questionnaires. (2016). TABLE 2. As assessed by the CCFQ, reduced cognitive control over emotion was associated with increased repetitive thinking and rumination, elevated negative affect following a stressful situation, and ultimately heightened symptoms of depression. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2018.02.004, Matheson, K., and Anisman, H. (2003). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Emotion regulation in depression: relation to cognitive inhibition. Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ). To be sure, the CCFQ was not developed as a diagnostic instrument, but instead was intended to compliment behavioral paradigms in determining common as well as different aspects of cognitive control and flexibility that are disturbed among individuals with depressive pathology. Psychol. This said, it is important to acknowledge the high correlation between the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ, which suggests a high degree of overlap between the two measures and potential redundancy. Johnco, C., Wuthrich, V. M., and Rapee, R. M. (2014). The fundamental factor in the expression of these abilities is highly dependent on context, including the characteristics and demands of the situation. Following the completion of the survey, participants received written debriefing and were mailed their gift card. Weight Disord. and 5000 bootstrap samples. 61, 154–162. Adv. The hypothesized model provided a marginal fit to the data, χ2 (112) = 223.693, p < 0.0001, CFI = 0.958, and RMSEA = 0.052. View 16 excerpts, cites methods, results and background, European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association, View 3 excerpts, references background and methods, Journal of personality and social psychology, View 3 excerpts, references methods and background, Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. Trends Cogn. In sum, the two-factor model with the four residual correlations provided the best absolute fit and relative fit to the data. 31, 138–145. As shown in Table 2, the appraisal and coping flexibility component of the CCFQ was most strongly associated with the alternatives facet of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. 68, 651–668. 71, 437–451. Moderating effect of cognitive control over emotion in the relation between stressor condition and negative affect. Using the scale below, indicate the extent to which agree or disagree with the following statements. Stress Health 6, 227–236. District 1 was randomly selected as the sample area and 211 women in this district were selected using systematic sampling method. The neurobiology of emotion–cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research. The development of cognitive flexibility and language abilities. Both components of the CCFQ were similarly associated with the cognitive reappraisal, but not the expressive suppression subscales of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. (2018). Psychol., 19 November 2018 By example, the value of a particular behavioral measure, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), might provide an index of flexibility that is limited to certain cognitive domains or situations. Psychol. doi: 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2011.11.001. Child. Thus, greater cognitive control over emotion, or the ability to disengage from negative cognitive and emotional states, might not only serve to regulate emotions effectively, but might also play a role in regulating the cortisol response associated with a stressful situation. In contrast, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory focuses on challenging and replacing maladaptive thoughts with more balanced and adaptive thinking, and was more strongly related to coping flexibility and expressive suppression (emotional containment). Affect. Importantly, although certain coping methods (e.g., problem-solving) seem to be more adaptive than others (e.g., rumination), the effectiveness of any specific strategy or combination of strategies is highly situation-dependent (Matheson and Anisman, 2003). Psychol. Self-reported ethnic background included Caucasian (72.6%, n = 218), Black (6.0%, n = 18), Asian (4.7%, n = 14), Arab (4.0%, n = 12), South Asian (4.0%, n = 12), Hispanic (2.3%, n = 7), Aboriginal (1.7%, n = 5), South East Asian, 1.0% (n = 3), and other (e.g., mixed ethnicity, 3.7%, n = 11). 27, 247–259. J. Exp. Psych. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-based Approach, 2nd Edn. Cognitive flexibility (CF) is a fundamental human ability to adjust cognitive processing strategies to deal with new and unpredicted situations. Further, as males and females typically vary in the severity of depressive symptoms, all mediation analyses included participant gender as a covariate. (2015). Being a relatively brief (20-item) questionnaire, it understandably does not capture all instances of cognitive flexibility (or of cognitive control) that may be important to stressful situations. The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BI-AAQ) assesses cognitive flexibility and acceptance of body image.This study was done to assess the validity and reliability of the Persian version of BI-AAQ, as an instrument to measure body image flexibility, in patients with somatic symptom and related disorders.This descriptive psychometric study was done in 2017 on 357 patients … Two formulas for computation of the area under the curve represent measures of total hormone concentration versus time-dependent change. Ther. Meta-analysis of Go/No-go tasks demonstrating that fMRI activation associated with response inhibition is task-dependent. Participants were asked not to eat, drink (with the exception of water), or smoke for at least an hour before arriving to the session. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.04.014, Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., and Cohen, J. D. (2001). This notwithstanding, the present findings support the notion that the CCFQ might be a useful self-report measure of processes related to cognitive control and flexibility in the context of stressful situations. Clin Psychol. Proc. (2012). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. For each item, participants respond to one of four options which range from low to high depression symptomatology. 95, 126–135. It is not entirely clear why the cognitive control over emotion, but not the appraisal and coping flexibility component of the CCFQ, uniquely moderated the cortisol response to the TSST. Neuropsychol. 53, 79–92. The cognitive control over emotion component was more closely related to the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and the Ruminative Response Scale, whereas as the appraisal and coping flexibility dimension exhibited a stronger association with the Coping Flexibility Questionnaire. Stress and depression. Gen. Psychiatry 4, 561–571. This aside, the main purpose of the present study was to determine whether the CCFQ, as a measure of cognitive control and flexibility in stressful situations, would effectively predict cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to an acute stressor, which was, in fact, found to occur. 9, 242–249. Thus, greater attention has been devoted to identifying factors that contribute to cognitive control and flexibility (Logue and Gould, 2014; Shields et al., 2016), and how disturbances of these abilities might be linked to depressive illness (Davis and Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000; Koster et al., 2011). doi: 10.1017/S0140525X00002429, Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., and Munck, A. U. The factor structure of the CCFQ in the community sample was nearly identical to that observed in the student sample, with the exception of one item. Upon completion of the study, participants received written debriefing and were compensated with course credit. Res. Neuroscience 345, 243–255. The cognitive control over emotion dimension of the CCFQ assessed the extent to which an individual perceives that they can control intrusive and repetitive (primarily negative) thoughts and emotions that are ordinarily elicited by a stressful situation. All items are rated on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly Agree). (2017). The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire The scoring of the 36-item CERQ questionnaire is again straightforward. Demystifying cognitive flexibility: implications for clinical and developmental neuroscience. Addict. The measures comprised the REI, the MADS, and the EoE. Based on these analyses, 26 items were eliminated from the initial 44-item pool due to low factor loadings (<0.40) on the two primary factors, were redundant, or were not consistent with the constructs represented by the two primary factors. The CFI is designed to assess cog-nitive flexibility in relation to thinking adaptively, rather ESEM was used to confirm the structure of the CCFQ. There is, however, one important difference between these two subscales. Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Neurosci. Additionally, IP addresses were checked to ensure that the same participant did not complete the survey multiple times. A parallel review was undertaken to investigate how control/flexibility might be manifested in stressful situations, which included literature pertaining to attention (set-shifting) and cognitive control as well as stressor appraisals and coping processes. Validity checks included (i) the length of time required to complete the survey, (ii) answering 8 out of 12 preselected questions in a non-random way, and completing over half the survey (approximately 70%). Explanatory flexibility and explanatory style in treatment-seeking patients with Axis I psychopathology. The frontal assessment battery (FAB) reveals neurocognitive dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals in distinct executive domains: Abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility. U.S.A. 109, 14681–14686. The intra- and inter-assay variability was <10%. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-8765.2011.01139.x, Muthén, L. K., and Muthén, B. O. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00177-X, Miller, E. K. (2000). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2015.07.003, Davis, R. N., and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). In order to make these concepts relevant to a stressful situation, cognitive content (i.e., the information that is being manipulated) was operationalized as thoughts, emotions, stressor appraisals, or coping strategies. Results: The research is a correlational descriptive study. (2005). Front. The Ruminative Response Scale (RRS; Treynor et al., 2003) is a widely used 22-item questionnaire assessing ruminative response styles to sad or depressed mood. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows (SPSS Science, Chicago, IL, United States). 152, 19–27. Thus, it was hypothesized that higher CCFQ scores would be associated with a less pronounced cortisol changes in response to the TSST challenge. The CCFQ was conceptualized and modeled after the type of cognitive control and cognitive flexibility measured through ‘cold’ executive function tasks (e.g., the Go/No-Go task, the WCST), where the defining features of these measures (inhibiting a prepotent response, shifting cognitive sets or behavioral strategies) served as a foundation for the development of this measure. Together, these preliminary factor analyses and reliability assessments suggest that the CCFQ exhibits a stable two-factor structure in a student and community sample. Following the 30-min habituation period involved in completing these measures, participants provided a baseline saliva sample (for cortisol determination) and were randomly assigned to either the stressor or control condition. Similarly, in the context of emotional situations, the ability to flexibly attend to and disengage from emotional aspects of a situation or a stimulus, termed ‘affective flexibility,’ might also reflect cognitive control and flexibility processes (Malooly et al., 2013). Cogn. 85, 348–362. J. Abnorm. Principal components analyses (PCA) with Promax rotation were used to explore the factor structure of the CCFQ in a student and community sample. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.05.005, Dajani, D. R., and Uddin, L. Q. Likewise, the three-factor alternative model which included the residual correlations failed to converge to a unique solution due to a non-positive definite latent variable covariance matrix and thus fit statistics are unavailable. Specifically, chronic stressor exposure can result in continuously engaging limited cognitive resources (e.g., executive functions) required to cope effectively with situational demands. The stressed prefrontal cortex and goal-directed behaviour: acute psychosocial stress impairs the flexible implementation of task goals. Sci. Participants were told that they would engage in a public speaking task (about applying for a research assistantship), and given 5 min to prepare, after which they made their presentation in front of a panel of graduate student judges. Intelligence and cognitive flexibility: fluid intelligence correlates with feature “unbinding” across perception and action. Of course, you may act differently depending on the situation, but try to think of what you usually think/feel/do when you are stressed or upset. In contrast, cognitive reappraisal, potentially because of the degree of effort required to engage in this emotion regulation strategy, was associated with elevated cortisol reactivity (Denson et al., 2014). Arch. (2016). 7, 134–140. Cogn. The dual pathway to creativity model: creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence. In addition to facilitating goal-directed behaviors, cognitive control and flexibility have been implicated in emotion regulation, and disturbances of these abilities are present in mood and anxiety disorders. inventory, morningness-eveningness questionnaire and short form of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. 9:58. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00058, Park, J., and Moghaddam, B. Zero-order correlations between the CCFQ and validation measures of cognitive control and cognitive (in)flexibility. A., De Dreu, C. K., Rietzschel, E. F., and Baas, M. (2010). Furthermore, diminished cognitive control over emotion was linked to elevated and prolonged cortisol reactivity following an acute challenge, a neuroendocrine profile that has been associated with depressive illness (Juruena et al., 2017). Participants were recruited to participate in a survey called “Coping with Stress” using websites, such as Facebook, Kijiji and Craig’s List, and through word of mouth. We also examined whether a more complex three-factor model (that also includes a method factor for the negatively worded items) provides a better fit to the data relative to the hypothesized two-factor model (that also includes the method factor for the negatively worded items). Participation in this study is voluntary. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). These additional validation measures were also used to investigate distinct and overlapping features of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory and the CCFQ. Dev. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2017.1296935, Okon-Singer, H., Hendler, T., Pessoa, L., and Shackman, A. J. doi: 10.3109/10253891003713765, Zwick, W. R., and Velicer, W. F. (1986). doi: 10.1016/S0306-4530(02)00108-7, Ridderinkhof, K. R., Van Den Wildenberg, W. P., Segalowitz, S. J., and Carter, C. S. (2004). Pers. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004, Benedek, M., Franz, F., Heene, M., and Neubauer, A. C. (2012). doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2004.09.016, Rolls, E. T. (2000). Trends Cogn. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.01.006, Hou, Z., Sui, Y., Song, X., and Yuan, Y. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, 4th Edn. Cognitive control and (cognitive) flexibility play an important role in an individual’s ability to adapt to continuously changing environments. An individual might arrive at an appraisal relatively rapidly, or with little consideration for the context of the situation. 123, 45–54. To further identify common and distinct feathers between the two scales, partial correlations between the CCFQ and validation measures, controlling for both subscales of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, were examined. To investigate this hypothesis, individuals with varying levels of cognitive control/flexibility based on the CCFQ were exposed to a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and were subsequently asked to appraise the challenge and report their current mood state. Dynamic systems theory as a paradigm for the study of change in psychotherapy: an application to cognitive therapy for depression. As displayed in Table 8, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping uniquely mediated the relation between greater cognitive control over emotion and lower depressive symptoms, although the direct effect of cognitive control of emotion on depressive symptoms remained significant after accounting for all 3 forms of coping, c’ = -0.244, SE = 0.048, p < 0.001. Neuroscience 345, 193–202. 18, 176–186. Prev. 96:358. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.96.2.358, Alexander, J. K., Hillier, A., Smith, R. M., Tivarus, M. E., and Beversdorf, D. Q. Thus, we determined whether individual differences in cognitive control/flexibility moderated the effects of an acute stressor on cortisol changes provoked by the TSST (Kirschbaum et al., 1993). A PCA with Promax rotation was conducted to determine whether the factor structure of the final (18-item) CCFQ observed in the student sample matched that of a community sample. Infrequent engagement in reappraisal processes, or difficulty in doing so, can result in the maintenance of negative affect and has been related to elevated symptoms of depression (Gross and John, 2003; Joormann and Gotlib, 2010). Consistent with this view, it was suggested that cognitive flexibility allows for shifts between implementation and maintenance of new reappraisals, while working memory is related to the maintenance and monitoring stages of new reappraisals (Zaehringer et al., 2018). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. As previously described, these features of cognitive control and flexibility were proposed to be expressed through three core processes: attention and attentional control, appraisals and reappraisals, and coping selection and flexibility. Neurosci. 16, 174–180. In Study 1, the CCFQ was assessed among both university students (N = 300) and a community sample (N = 302). Moreover, although the present findings are correlational, these results raise the possibility that lower levels of cognitive control and flexibility might be associated with a tendency to interpret stressful situations in a negative perspective. Res. 9:2219. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02219. This ability has predominantly been assessed by the WCST, the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional (ID/ED) shift task, and the Task Switching paradigm (Grant and Berg, 1948; Downes et al., 1989; Monsell, 2003). 145, 93–105. From this perspective, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory was designed to measure the tendency to perceive difficult situations as controllable (control subscale), the ability to perceive multiple alternative explanations for life occurrences and human behavior, and the ability to generate multiple alternative solutions to difficult situations (alternatives subscale). However, the ways through which these abilities might be expressed in stressful situations is not fully understood. 38, 571–578. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress. 53, 480–485. doi: 10.1159/000119004. Fluid and flexible minds: Intelligence reflects synchrony in the brain’s intrinsic network architecture. The negative affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Version (PANAS-X; Watson and Clark, 1999) was used to assess the intensity of state negative mood immediately post-TSST. Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., and Emery, G. (1979). Impaired cognitive control and flexibility have been observed among depressed individuals and those at risk for the disorder (Murphy et al., 2012; Snyder, 2013; Trivedi and Greer, 2014; Hou et al., 2016). Received: 20 March 2018; Accepted: 26 October 2018;Published: 19 November 2018. Once the TSST (or control task) were completed, participants filled out several questionnaires concerning stressor appraisals, mood state, and cognitive flexibility. The Kaiser measure of sampling adequacy was.94 and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was χ2(153) = 3322.95, p < 0.001. Number 1762 the same participant did not complete the survey, participants engaged in an individual might at. Ways through which these abilities ( Liston et al., 2009 ) cortisol reactivity neural... Stress on core executive functions: a meta-analysis and review measure, both of! 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